current research topics in animal biotechnology
Biotechnology provides new tools for improving human health and animal health and welfare and increasing livestock productivity. Transgenics (also known as recombinant DNA) is the transferal of a specific gene from one organism to another. It also is expected that technologies will continue to be developed in the field, with much hope for advances in the use of animal organs in human transplant operations. Fertilizers and Influence On Plants 9. Some aspects of animal production have become "hot topics." Some would argue all organisms share common genetic material, so the melon would not contain any of the fish’s identity. As of May 27, 2016, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act, the FDA can only require additional labeling of foods derived from Genetically Engineered sources if there is a material difference – such as a different nutritional profile – between the GE product and its non-GE counterpart. Submissions of manuscripts focused on biotech-associated topics in a broad sense (topics Examples of animal biotechnology include creating transgenic animals (animals with one or more genes introduced by human intervention), using gene knock out technology to make animals with a specific inactivated gene and producing nearly identical animals by somatic cell nuclear transfer (or cloning). Key Topics Covered: Executive Summary. Animal “telos” is a concept derived from Aristotle and refers to an animal’s fundamental nature. While it has been noted that animals might, in fact, benefit from the use of animal biotechnology — through improved health, for example — the majority of discussion is about the known and unknown potential negative impacts to animal welfare through the process. Click the links below to learn more about issues in animal science and agriculture: Antibiotic use in livestock production Welfare concerns for animal housing View aims and scope Submit your article Guide for authors. For example, female horses have been bred with male donkeys to produce mules, and male horses have been bred with female donkeys to produce hinnies, for use as work animals, for the past 3,000 years. Concerns surrounding the use of animal biotechnology include the unknown potential health effects to humans from food products created by transgenic or cloned animals, the potential effects on the environment and the effects on animal welfare. Human pharmaceutical proteins include enzymes, clotting factors, albumin and antibodies. Of the transgenic animals that do survive, many do not express the inserted gene properly, often resulting in anatomical, physiological or behavioral abnormalities. While food allergens are not a new issue, the difficulty comes in how to anticipate these adequately, because they only can be detected once a person is exposed and experiences a reaction. ADVERTISEMENTS: Animal Biotechnology: An Introduction to Animal Biotechnology! Animal biotechnology is the use of science and engineering to modify living organisms. This field builds on advances in biotechnology, and currently informs food science of protein-containing products such as milk and eggs, as well as tissue-based foods such as meat and fish. The biotechnology research company of China- ‘China National Biotec Group’ has developed convalescent plasma to treat the patients who are infected with the COVID-19 (novel corona virus). The main question posed about the safety of food produced through animal biotechnology for human consumption is, “Is it safe to eat?” But answering that question isn’t simple. Short Communication: (1) Invest?gat?on of the Effect of Age, Gender, Seasonal Change on … All rights reserved. The subsequently produced protein then can be removed from the host and used as a genetically engineered product in humans, other animals, plants, bacteria or viruses. For each approved product, the FDA also makes available to the public via its website a Freedom of Information Summary that summarizes the information that FDA used to determine that the drug is safe for the treated animals, the animal products (edible tissues such as meat) are safe for humans to eat, and that the product is effective. In 1988, the first patent was issued on a transgenic animal, a strain of laboratory mice whose cells were engineered to contain a cancer-predisposing gene. © 2006–2020 North Carolina Association for Biomedical Research. Related Journals of Animal biotechnology News about Biotechnology, including commentary and archival articles published in The New York Times. The potential benefits of animal biotechnology are numerous and include enhanced nutritional content of food for human consumption; a more abundant, cheaper and varied food supply; agricultural land-use savings; a decrease in the number of animals needed for the food supply; improved health of animals and humans; development of new, low-cost disease treatments for humans; and increased understanding of human disease. In SCNT, scientists remove the nucleus from an egg cell (oocyte) and replace it with a nucleus from a donor adult somatic cell, which is any cell in the body except for an oocyte or sperm. Proteins, including enzymes and hormones, perform many vital functions in organisms. 3. Those unopposed to changing an animal’s telos, however, argue it could benefit animals by fitting them for living conditions for which they are not “naturally” suited. From the time when biotechnology has come into existence, researchers are busy to find something new out of it that can help to ease the life of common man. Gene splicing is used to introduce one or more genes of an organism into a second organism. In January 2008, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the sale of cloned animals and their offspring for food, despite fierce opposition from animal welfare and consumer advocacy groups, environmental organizations, some members of Congress, and many consumers. The NAS report stated it still needs be proven that the nutritional profile does not change in these foods and that no unintended and potentially harmful expression products appear. The government agencies involved in the regulation of animal biotechnology, mainly the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), likely will rule on pending policies and establish processes for the commercial uses of products created through the technology. In addition to the use of transgenics and cloning, scientists can use gene knock out technology to inactivate, or “knock out,” a specific gene. Explore journal content Latest issue Articles in press Article collections All … The potential benefits of animal biotechnology are numerous and include enhanced nutritional content of food for human consumption; a more abundant, cheaper and varied food supply; agricultural land-use savings; a decrease in the number of animals needed for the food supply; improved health of animals and humans; development of new, low-cost disease treatments for humans; and increased understanding of human disease. In effect, God has created a perfect, natural order, they say, and it is sinful to try to improve that order by manipulating the basic ingredient of all life, DNA. Reproductive cloning begins with somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT). A specific example of these particular applications of animal biotechnology is the transfer of the growth hormone gene of rainbow trout directly into carp eggs. 1. Latest Research in the Biotechnology and Topics for Dissertation. Instead, the donor DNA must be cut and pasted, or recombined, into a compatible fragment of DNA from a vector — an organism that can carry the donor DNA into the host. It is feared existing species could be eliminated, thus upsetting the natural balance of organisms. Information about topics and careers in bioscience for teachers, students and everyone else It looks like you’re using an outdated version of Internet Explorer that is … All manuscript submissions are subject to initial appraisal by the Editor, and, if found suitable for further consideration, to … Animal Biotechnology: Current Research Current Issu. 1.487 ... Advanced search. U.S. agriculture must dramatically adapt many of its management practices and uses of natural resources if the Nation is to sustainably meet the food and fiber demands of current and future generations. The Department of Agriculture (USDA) provides leadership on food, agriculture, natural resources and related issues through public policy, the best available science and efficient management. The offspring from these crosses then are bred selectively to produce the greatest number of desirable traits. Will focus on responding to disasters and humanitarian crises, defending against biothreats, addressing climate change, and improving human health and performance. For some people, these technologies are considered blasphemous. In gene splicing, DNA cannot be transferred directly from its original organism, the donor, to the recipient organism, or the host. In 2015, the FDA determined that AquAdvantage Salmon meets the statutory requirements for safety and effectiveness under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. Ethical and social considerations surrounding animal biotechnology are of significant importance. These potential harms include the alteration of the ecologic balance regarding feed sources and predators, the introduction of transgenic animals that alter the health of existing animal populations and the disruption of reproduction patterns and their success. To ensure the site displays correctly, please use a more modern browser, like Firefox or Google Chrome. Other people are concerned about its impact on small farmers. Current Biotechnology is an international peer-reviewed journal, which publishes expert research, reviews and thematic issues in all core areas of biotechnology including basic and applied research. This especially is true because researchers and developers worry the future market success of any products derived from cloned or genetically engineered animals will depend partly on the public’s acceptance of those products. According to a survey conducted by the Pew Initiative on Food and Biotechnology, 58 percent of those polled said they opposed scientific research on the genetic engineering of animals. Application of Biotechnology in Animals. Citation search. Yet despite these potential benefits, several areas of concern exist around the use of biotechnology in animals. ADVERTISEMENTS: This technique was initially confined to cold-blooded […] Animals are used in many ways in biotechnology. Consequently, nearly all researchers involved in animal biotechnology are protecting their investments and intellectual property through the patent system. On average, it takes seven to nine years and an investment of about $55 million to develop, test and market a new genetically engineered product. To assess the risk of these environmental harms, many more questions must be answered, such as: What is the possibility the altered animal will enter the environment? The latest science news on biotechnology. Animal Biotechnology: Current Research aims in the dissemination of knowledge evolving from cutting edge research for improving animal health and productivity. These enzymes cut the DNA strands of any organism at precise points. It looks like you’re using an outdated version of Internet Explorer that is not supported by the About Bioscience website. The Prevention Measures in Plant Pathology 7. Biotechnology can improve an animal’s impact on the environment. They believe a compelling need should exist for the genetic modification of animals and that we should not use animals only for our own wants and needs. Disagreement exists as to whether it is ethical to change an animal’s telos through transgenesis. In this use, the introduced genetic construct is considered the “drug.” This lack of concrete regulatory guidance has produced many questions, especially because the process for bringing genetically engineered animals to market remains unknown. Animals. If, for example, a small amount of genetic material from a fish is introduced into a melon (in order to allow it grow to in lower temperatures), does that melon become “fishy” in any meaningful sense? Current Opinion in Biotechnology (COBIOT) publishes authoritative, comprehensive, and systematic reviews.COBIOT helps specialists keep up to date with a clear and readable synthesis on current advances biotechnology. In addition, if federal funds are used to support the research, the work further is regulated by the Public Health Service Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. Ross Harrisson made the beginning of animal tissue culture technique in 1907 using frog tissue. Other questions must be answered first, such as, “What substances expressed as a result of the genetic modification are likely to remain in food?” Despite these questions, the National Academies of Science (NAS) released a report titled Animal Biotechnology: Science-Based Concerns stating that the overall concern level for food safety was determined to be low. In 1977, genes from other organisms were transferred to bacteria, an achievement that led eventually to the first transfer of a human gene. Current Research in Biotechnology topics covered include "core" biotechnology disciplines such as genetic and molecular engineering; plant and animal biotechnology; food biotechnology; energy biotechnology; environmental biotechnology; and tissue, cell and pathway engineering. For reproductive cloning, the embryo is implanted into a uterus of a surrogate female, where it can develop into a live being. The concept of animal tissue culture first emerged in 1903, when scientists discovered the technique of dividing cells in vitro (in a test tube). To date, no new regulations or laws have been enacted to deal with animal biotechnology and related issues. That growth hormone is called bovine somatotropin or BST. View aims and scope. Currently, the pig is the major animal being considered as a viable organ donor to humans. Male Pregnancy Among Animals 3. Subscribe. This journal acknowledges and encourages interdisciplinary research in Biotechnology with scope to address mankind. Biotechnology improves the food we eat - meat, milk and eggs. It will publish review articles, original research papers, method papers and short articles in Biological research fields. Immunity and Stress 10. Whether products generated from genetically engineered animals should be labeled is yet another controversy surrounding animal biotechnology. Pigs, like almost all mammals, have markers on their cells that enable the human immune system to recognize them as foreign and reject them. That was followed by Swiss microbiologist Werner Arber’s discovery in the 1960s of special enzymes, called restriction enzymes, in bacteria. Instead, the initiative is committed to providing information and encouraging dialogue so consumers and policy-makers can make their own informed decisions. When animals are genetically engineered for biomedical research purposes (as pigs are, for example, in organ transplantation studies), their care and use is carefully regulated by the Department of Agriculture. Some religions place great importance on the “integrity” of species, and as a result, those religion’s followers strongly oppose any effort to change animals through genetic modification. This transferring of genes alters the characteristics of the organism by changing its protein makeup. There also is a concern that proteins designed to produce a pharmaceutical product in the animal’s milk might find their way to other parts of the animal’s body, possibly causing adverse effects. Animal Biotechnology covers the identification and manipulation of genes and their products, stressing applications in domesticated animals. It is this technology that creates a possible source of replacement organs for humans. The main governing body for animal biotechnology and their products is the FDA. The Journal intends to publish articles of Multidisciplinary nature and developments in different disciplines of Bioscience and Biotechnology. The agency’s strict confidentiality provisions and lack of an environmental mandate in the FDCA also are concerns. Agricultural animals have played a critical role in meeting human nutritional requirements for food and fiber. Weedy and Invasive Plants 8. USDA supports the safe and appropriate use of science and technology, including biotechnology, to help meet agricultural challenges and consumer needs of the 21st century. The company has collected plasma from some of the recovered patients in the Wuhan city of China and developed therapeutic products that include convalescent plasma and immune globulin. This method continues to be used today. Biotechnology. And yet others believe it is unethical to stifle technology with the potential to save human lives. Current Research in Biotechnology is an international peer reviewed journal devoted to publishing original research and short communications resulting from research in Analytical biotechnology, Plant biotechnology, Food biotechnology, Energy biotechnology, Environmental biotechnology, Systems biology, Nanobiotechnology, Tissue, cell and pathway engineering, Chemical biotechnology, and … The journal accepts original research, case reports, review and letters to the editor on the recent updates and outcomes of research on the perspective of the below mentioned topics: Specific areas of interest include, but are not limited to: Agricultural biotechnology ; Animal biotechnology Two main areas of debate focus on the welfare of animals involved and the religious issues related to animal biotechnology. Another food safety issue, bioactivity, asks, “Will putting a functional protein like a growth hormone in an animal affect the person who consumes food from that animal?” The FDA approves these drugs only after information and/or studies have shown that the food from the treated animals is safe for people to eat, and that the drugs do not harm the treated animal or the environment. Study tracks elephant tusks from 16th century shipwreck. A Biotechnology Perspective of Animals Diseases. That event marked the beginning of recombinant DNA technology, or genetic engineering. To date, cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, horses, mules, cats, rats and mice have been cloned, beginning with the first cloned animal, a sheep named Dolly, in 1996. The regulation of animal biotechnology currently is performed under existing government agencies. Some wonder if it is done so companies can increase profits and agricultural production. Some people, however, are opposed ethically to the patenting of life forms, because it makes organisms the property of companies. Transgenic animals can pose problems for some religious groups. In fact, some Christians support animal biotechnology, saying the Bible teaches humanity’s dominion over nature. Malik, et al. In this way, scientists could create animals that feel no pain. The potential for new allergens to be expressed in the process of creating foods from genetically modified animals is a real and valid concern, because the process introduces new proteins. and Will it interact with and affect the success of other animals in the new community? Obesity in Home Pets 2. Cellular agriculture is the emerging field of producing animal products from cell culture, rather than animals. Lincoln Laboratory establishes Biotechnology and Human Systems Division . Research & Reviews: A Journal of Biotechnology (RRJoBT): is a print and online Journal focused towards the publication of current research work carried out in the area of Biotechnology. November 23, 2020. Those opposed to mandatory labeling say it violates the government’s traditional focus on regulating products, not processes. 2. Animals are used in many ways in biotechnology. Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations700 Journals and 15,000,000 Readers Each Journal is getting 25,000+ Readers. Current Research in Biotechnology. If a product of animal biotechnology has been proven scientifically by the FDA to be safe for human consumption and the environment and not materially different from similar products produced via conventional means, these individuals say it is unfair and without scientific rationale to single out that product for labeling solely because of the process by which it was made. .. While the risk is considered low, there is no data available. Current Topics in Biotechnology Edited By C.P. Many people question the use of an agency that was designed specifically for drugs to regulate live animals. As defined in the scopes of the journals Current Research in Biotechnology and Current Opinion in Biotechnology, major themes of biotechnology research include genetic and molecular engineering; tissue, cell, and pathway engineering; plant and animal biotechnology; food biotechnology; energy biotechnology; environmental biotechnology; analytical biotechnology; systems biology; … Biotechnology improves the food we eat - meat, milk and eggs. Animal Biotechnology List of Issues Volume 31, Issue 6 2019 Impact Factor. Specifically, these products fall under the new animal drug provisions of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FDCA). Before animal biotechnology will be used widely by animal agriculture production systems, additional research will be needed to determine if the benefits of animal biotechnology outweigh these potential risks. Strict opponents think there is something fundamentally immoral about the processes of transgenics and cloning. A transgenic animal is created once the second organism incorporates the new DNA into its own genetic material. Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology is an open access, peer-reviewed journal that encompasses a wide range of research areas including animal genetics, reproduction, nutrition, physiology, biochemistry, biotechnology, feedstuffs and animal products.The journal publishes original and novel research articles and reviews mainly involved in pigs, poultry, beef cattle, cows, goats and … Submit an article. Open access. In addition, some of the biotechnology techniques in use today are extremely inefficient at producing fetuses that survive. The process of transplanting cells, tissues or organs from one species to another is referred to as xenotransplantation. View Animal biotechnology Research Papers on Academia.edu for free. Depending on how the future will unfold, today’s progress in biotechnology research has greater or lesser potential to be the basis of subsequent innovation. Tracking progress against indicators for different future scenarios will help to focus, emphasize, or de-emphasize discovery research in a timely manner and to maximize the chance for successful innovation. To deliver its mission, the BBSRC supports research and training in universities and research centers and promotes knowledge transfer from research to applications in business, industry and policy, and public engagement in the biosciences. Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques, Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine, Biology and Medicine, Journal of Advanced Chemical Engineering, Animal Biotechnology, African Journal of Biotechnology, Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Critical Reviews in Biotechnology and Reviews in Environmental Science and Biotechnology, Asian Journal of Microbiology Biotechnology and Environmental Sciences. It still is unclear how the agency’s provisions will be interpreted for animals and how multiple agencies will work together in the regulatory system. April 2008 MD Publications Distributed by Coronet Books Inc. ISBN: 9788175331020 414 pages, Illustrated, 7 5/8 x 9 3/4" Genetic engineering is used to knock out the pig gene responsible for the protein that forms the marker to the pig cells. And in a Gallup poll conducted in May 2004, 64 percent of Americans polled said they thought it was morally wrong to clone animals. The animal biotechnology in use today is built on a long history. Top; About this journal. To date, a majority of the American public is uncomfortable with genetic modifications to animals. The Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) is the United Kingdom’s principal funder of basic and strategic biological research. In 1973, American geneticist Stanley Cohen and American biochemist Herbert Boyer removed a specific gene from one bacterium and inserted it into another using restriction enzymes. Camouflage Mechanism in Sea Animals 5. One could also find good research topics related to traditional biology subfields like plant and animal biology, ecology (current global problems warrant a number of hot topics), or topics related to humans: neurobiology (and determinants of human behavior), recent discoveries on diseases and the immune system, etc. The resulting transgenic carp produce both carp and rainbow trout growth hormones and grow to be one-third larger than normal carp. … The site contains extensive articles on the ethical and social issues involved in animal biotechnology. Since the early 1980s, transgenic animals have been created with increased growth rates, enhanced lean muscle mass, enhanced resistance to disease or improved use of dietary phosphorous to lessen the environmental impacts of animal manure. Funded by a grant from the Pew Charitable Trusts to the University of Richmond, it advocates neither for nor against agricultural biotechnology. Such religious requirements raise basic questions about the identity of animals and their genetic makeup. Biotechnology is an evolving research field that covers a broad range of topics. Read full story → Or, if you’re using Windows Vista or Windows 7, you can upgrade to the latest version of Internet Explorer. Open Access Journals gaining more Readers and Citations, Journal of Molecular and Genetic Medicine. Specifically, the report listed three specific food concerns: allergens, bioactivity and the toxicity of unintended expression products. Editor-in-Chief: Prof. Dr. Atanas Atanasov, Ph.D. View editorial board. Transgenic poultry, swine, goats and cattle that generate large quantities of human proteins in eggs, milk, blood or urine also have been produced, with the goal of using these products as human pharmaceuticals. Current issue Browse list of issues Explore. Hot topics in animal science and production. The labeling for each product provides all instructions for safe and effective use and is approved by FDA. Will the animal become established in the environment? The National Institute of Food and Agriculture is part of the USDA; its site contains information about the science behind animal biotechnology and a glossary of terms. Because of the many uncertainties involved, it is challenging to make an assessment. Religion plays a crucial part in the way some people view animal biotechnology. They currently provide 18% of the total calories and … Issues like animal welfare and food safety gain public and government interest. For example, is it ethical to create genetically modified chickens that can tolerate living in small cages? Others, however, believe the transferred genes are exactly what make the animal distinctive; therefore the melon would be forbidden to be eaten as well. Natural Disease Resistance in Plants 6. Read the latest research from around the world on genetic engineering, drug development and more. Individual genes direct an animal’s characteristics through the production of proteins. Animal biotechnology in use today is based on the science of genetic engineering. The modern era of biotechnology began in 1953, when American biochemist James Watson and British biophysicist Francis Crick presented their double-helix model of DNA. Controversy and debate regarding animal biotechnology, saying the Bible teaches humanity ’ s principal funder of and! Identity of animals involved and the North Carolina Department of public Instruction these enzymes cut the DNA strands of organism. New community in 1907 using frog tissue is concern that genetically engineered animals should be labeled is yet another surrounding... The same religion might hold differing views on the environment also known as hybridizing ) to the... 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